In Today’s world, Knee replacement surgery has been the second most common surgery after cataract. Overall life expectancy has increased so the problems related with the age have also been increased. As Knee arthritis is a degenerative condition, which usually occurs due to wear n tear of the joints. At Jointscare, We provide complete solution of your knee problems ranging from medicines to partial knee replacement to total knee replacement
More Information About Total Knee Replacement
Knee joint is composed of three bones. Thigh bone called Femur, Shin none called Tibia and kneecap called Patella. Articular surface of all these is covered by a smooth surface called CARTILAGE. Normal cartilage prevents friction between bones and provides pain free smooth movement like flexion and extention. Between cartilages of femur and tibia, there are two meniscus medial and lateral. These menisci increase the surface area and also aids in preventing friction while flexion and extension movements. These menisci also prevent jerks and increase its stability.
Between patella and femur and above it, there is a special oiling device/mechanism called Synovium. This synovium fluid works as oil as in any machinery for its smooth functioning.
As age advances, this cartilage degenerates and so two bones rub against each other, what is called ARTHRITIS. There are different types of arthritis,
As age advances, degenerative changes occur in every part of the body. This applies to knee joint also. It can be explained in various ways like Bending of legs (BOW LEGS), Decreased space within the joint etc…
Just like a new car’s tire has marks on it but after long usage, these tires become flattened. Same way cartilage gets rubbed between two bones and underlying bone becomes exposed. Damage or absence of cartilage leads to friction and so the patient has pain.
There are multiple factors, such as obesity, sedentary life style, age, female gender, intra articular fracture or fracture in close vicinity to knee joint etc. which are responsible for OA.
Treatment starts with weight reduction, exercise and analgesics. Use of a stick, modifications in life style is also advised. Special intra articular injections and arthroscopy are also part of treatment of osteoarthritis. Changing the angle of the leg (surgery) called High Tibal Osteotomy(HTO) and Unicondylar knee replacement are also important options for treatment of OA. In all these cases most important is to decide which treatment to be advised at that particular time. When all the above described treatments fail or are not able to relieve pain TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT is advised.
After this surgery, usually patient walks with equal weight on both the legs on 2nd post operative day. Initially patient walks with the help of a walker. Within 2-4 weeks, patient can walk without support. With the help of newer joints patient is able to sit cross-leg.
After knee replacement, patient becomes mobile and is able to return to his/her normal active life style. Patient walks without pain and is able to climb stairs.
RA is an autoimmune disease in which synovium gets inflamed and it damages the joint. It damages cartilage and bones become softened. If RA is of long duration and cannot be controlled with medicines, muscle wasting occurs, cartilage gets eroded and develops various deformities.
RA can affect all joints, Commonly small joints of hands, wrist, elbow and knee are affected. In this disease process, Osteoporosis (Softening of bone) is enhanced and so bones are quite fragile.
In this surgery, worn out cartilage and bone are removed and prepared in such a way that new artificial joint can be implanted.
As shown in the picture below, bone is prepared and then artificial knee joint is implanted over prepared site and fixed with special bone cement.
During this surgery bones are cut in such a fashion that bend knees are straightened in OT itself. Legs become straightened so body weight passes in normal axis and patient can stand and walk straight.
These are the question routinely asked by patients and their relatives. Patient has to undergo this surgery only when knee pain is unbearable, where patient can’t perform his/her daily activities, not able to walk without stick, pain increases on standing or walking, medicines don’t relieve pain or when patient is on Analgesics since long. This is a very useful surgery for above-mentioned patients.
This is a PLANNED OPERATION, which is to be carried out according to patient’s fitness and convenience. Before this surgery, Patient has to undergo blood investigations, cardio-respiratory check up and other necessary investigations. Patient is taken for surgery only after physician’s fitness.
This surgery is usually done in old age patients who may have other illness like Hypertension, Diabetes, Ischemic heart disease, Renal disease etc. These patients who have other illness are termed MEDICALLY HIGH RISK patients. They may require ICU care, so the hospitals, which have ICU-ICCU, are considered better for those patients. We have one of the best ICU-ICCU setup at our hospital.